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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 8(2); 1997 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 1997;8(2): 217-227.
Clinical review and evaluation of the blunt traumatic diaphragmatic injury
Sam Sik Park, Jae Gu Kang, Jae Myung Chung
OBJECTIVE: Sixteen cases of blunt diaphragmatic injury were clinically reviewed during 10 years from Oct.1987 to Jun.1996 at the Kangdong sacred heart hospital. The age and sex distribution were ranged from 3 to 67-old-years. The most common age range was between third decades to fifth decades in 10 cases(62.50%) and occurred predominantly in male, the sex ratio was 4.3 : 1.(M:F 4.3:1) The modes of blunt diaphragmatic injury were due to motor vehicle accidents(MVA), motor cycle accidents(MCA), fall down(FD) and others. Most common injuries were responsible for MVA. MVA were pedestrian traffic accidents 5 cases (41.7%), driver 4 cases(33.3%) passenger 3 cases(25.0%). In the blunt diaphragmatic injury sites, the left-sided diaphragmatic injury had predominant[left-sided cases 10(62.50%), right-sided cases 6(37.50%)]. Cost common symptoms and signs were chest pain or chest discomfort(81.25%) and dyspnea(68.75%), abdominal tenderness(50.00%), decreased bowel sound and breath sound(50.00%) and others. All of 16 cases in blunt diaphragmatic injury were associated with other injuries. The associated injuries were hemopneumothorax 14(87.50%), hemoperitoneum 7(43.759o), liver injury 7(43.75%), orthopedics fracture 14(87.50%), head injury 5(31.25%) and others. The diagnostic methods were used with simple x-ray, ultrasonogram and computed tomogram. The preoperative diagnosis of blunt diaphragmatic injury were suggested in 10 cases(62.509o) and others were confirmed during operation. The thirteen cases of all of sixteen cases were performed emergency operation within eight hours. The herniated intraabdominal organs through ruptured diaphragm were presented in 10cases(62.5%) [stomach 7 cases(43.75%), spleen 6 cases(37.50%), colon 3 cases(18.75%), liver 3 cases(18.75%), small bowel and omentum 2 cases(12.50%), respectively]. The mean size of blunt diaphragmatic injury were 7.7cm, right-sided mean size were 9cm, left-sided mean size were 6.9cm. The most common site of blunt diaphragm- atic injury were presented in anteromedial site 7 cases(43.75%). Simple chest x-ray revealed abnormal finding [hemothorax 10cases(62.50%), pneumothorax 4cases(25.00%), herniated organ into thorax8 cases(50.00%), diaphragm elevation 3 cases(18.75%) and others]. The postoperative complication were associated in 10 cases(62.50%) out of 16 cases. Common complications were pleural effusion 6 cases(37.50%) and atelectasis 3 cases(18.75%). Injury severity score(ISS) value of 16 cases in the blunt trauma ranged from 10 to 59. It was presented with mean value of ISS(35.5),mean value of ISS survivors(35) and nonsurvivors(55.5). Revised trauma score(RTS) value ranged also from 4 to 12. There were revealed with mean value of RTS(9.7),mean value of RTS survivors(10) and nonsurvivors(6.5). All of the blunt traumatic injury, mortality rate was related to the values of ISS and RTS.
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