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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 24(4); 2013 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2013;24(4): 420-427.
Optimal Dose of Antivenin for Asymptomatic or Minor Envenomation Patient with Korean Viperidae Injuries
Kyoung Min You, Woon Young Kwon, Tae Hyeong Kwon, Jong Hwan Shin, Hui Jai Lee
1Department of Emergency Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. emdrlee@snu.ac.kr
2Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of General Surgery, Gangwon Province Wonju Medical Center, Wonju, Korea.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of our antivenin treatment protocol for patients with Korean Viperidae envenomation.
We developed an antivenin treatment protocol for Korean Viperidae envenomation, based on previous data, and applied this treatment to the enrolled patients. In brief, antivenin was not used for patients with grade 0. Patients with grade I and II received one vial of antivenin. Those with grade III and IV received two and three vials of antivenin, respectively. Adult patients who visited the emergency department (ED) after receiving a snakebite between July 2008 to August 2010 were included. Follow ups were performed at 24 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after the snakebite.
A total of 62 patients were enrolled. At the initial evaluation, 6 patients (9.7%) were grade 0, 47 patients (75.8%) were grade I, and 9 patients (14.5%) were grade II. Upon the follow-up evaluation, 14 patients (29.8%) progressed from grade I to grade II and 2 patients (22.2%) progressed from grade II to III. Coagulopathy developed in 5 patients (8.0%) and rhabdomyolysis in 5 patients (8.0%). Urticaria developed in 2 patients (3.2%) and cellulitis in 3 patients (4.8%) as delayed complications. As an antivenin-related complication, serum sickness developed in only 1 patient (1.6%). There were no severe complications and all clinical and laboratory abnormalities disappeared within 28 days.
Our antivenin treatment protocol was feasible and safe. To confirm our data, multicenter validation studies are needed.
Key words: Snake Venoms, Snake Bites, Antivenins
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