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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 32(3); 2021 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2021;32(3): 257-262.
Clinico-toxicological characteristics of grayanotoxin poisoning according to toxin source: a single center experience
Dong Hyun Lee , Young Ho Jin , Jae Chol Yoon , Jae Baek Lee , Tae Oh Jeong , So Eun Kim , Tae Whan Oh
Department of Emergency Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea
Correspondence  Young Ho Jin ,Tel: 063-250-1523, Fax: 063-250-1075, Email: emjin@jbnu.ac.kr,
Received: July 23, 2020; Revised: September 24, 2020   Accepted: September 29, 2020.  Published online: June 30, 2021.
ABSTRACT
Objective:
This study evaluates the general clinico-toxicological characteristics, and determines whether they are varied with toxin source, in patients admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with grayanotoxin (GTX)/mad honey poisoning.
Method:
Patients diagnosed with GTX/mad honey poisoning at the University Teaching Hospital emergency department between January 2001 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. The clinico-toxicological characteristics were compared by classifying patients into two groups, according to the toxin source: group A, poisoned by the Himalayan mad honey, and group B, poisoned by biologic materials containing GTX other than Himalayan mad honey.
Results:
Totally, 26 patients were identified with symptomatic grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning. There were no statistical differences in the clinico-toxicological characteristics, except systolic blood pressure (SBP). At presentation, the SBP was significantly decreased in group B (P=0.013). Although dizziness and blurred vision were statistically not significant symptoms, there was a trend of significance (P<0.1) in group B. Notably, 5 of the 8 patients who consumed Rhododendron brachycarpum complained of blurred vision, and had a relatively low mean SBP (68.6±15.6 mmHg).
Conclusion:
The general clinico-toxicological characteristics were similar, subsequent to ingestion of Himalayan mad honey and Rhododendron species. However, since blurred vision and hemodynamic instability were relatively more common in poisoning by R. brachycarpum than other Rhododendron species, emergency physicians need to be aware that the symptoms or severity of poisoning may vary according to the Rhododendron species ingested.
Key words: Grayanotoxin; Poisoning; Rhododendron
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